What Are The Cancer Types?

Generally, we can count the following cancer types:

Lung Cancer

If cells from lung tissue grow without need and control, they progress to cancer. The mass grows over time, and can spread to distant organs by contact or by circulation.


Lung cancer has two main subgroups:

  • Small cell lung cancer
  • Non-small cell lung cancer

Disease may not yield serious complaints before advanced stages.

Brain Tumor

Brain tumors are classified as benign and malign tumors. Malign tumors can originate from uncontrolledly increased cells, or can be caused by a metastasis of a distant tumor in the body. Benign tumors are the tumors in the cranium but out of the brain tissue.

Renal Cancer

Kidneys are localized in the posterior part of upper abdomen. Most frequent tumors of the kidneys are simple renal cysts. Renal cyst is a benign mass, which is completely different from cancer, and it is not life-threatening.


Renal cancer (renal cell cancer) is the malignant tumor originating from kidneys. If diagnosed at an early stage, the cure rates are high. Generally, it is seen in older ages and more in men.

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer has several subtypes originating from skin tissues, and it is the most frequent cancer type. Nearly half of the all cancer cases are skin cancers, but it is the least cause of cancer deaths. Skin cancer risk is increased with advancing age. The reason for this may be the cumulative exposure to sunlight.

Larynx Cancer

Larynx is located under throat and in front of the pharynx, contains vocal chords, and prevents food to pass to airways. Laryngeal cancer originates from uncontrolledly increased cells in larynx.

Small-intestine Cancer

The cancers of small-intestine are very rare when compared with its area in the abdomen. Mean age for small-intestine cancer is 57. Rate of small-intestine cancers are high in people with different genetic diseases or people with poor immunity. Patients may have no symptoms, or there may be some disorders representing general cancer diagnoses.

Colon Cancer

Colon cancer includes cancerous growth in rectum and colon. It is one of the 5 most frequent cancers. Approximately 150 cm upper part of large intestine is called “colon”, and 20 cm lower part is called “rectum”. It can be seen at every age, but frequently seen after 50 years of age. Some of the major symptoms are loose stool, unexplained weight loss, continuous weakness, changes in bowel habits, blood in stool, nausea and vomiting.

Signs and symptoms of colon cancer may differentiate according to the stage of the tumor. At the early stages, patient may not have a significant pain.


Leukemia is the disease of uncontrolled increase of leukocytes. Leukemia is one of the most frequent cancers of childhood, and generally seen under 4 years-of-age. Leukemia constitutes about 2% of all cancers.

Uncontrolledly increased cells invade blood, and patient becomes vulnerable to infections. Bone marrow biopsy, special blood tests, and genetic tests may be necessary for diagnosis.

Liver Cancer

Liver cancers are mainly originated from liver cells called hepatocytes. Liver cancer risk increases in people with Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C, or virus carrier, or with chronic hepatitis. Also, cirrhosis patients have a risk for liver cancer. This cancer is relatively less frequent when compared to other cancer types.


The signs of liver cancer are abdominal distension, weight loss, appetite loss, fever and paleness, and darkening of urine.


Lymphoma is a cancer of lymphocytes, and general definition of cancerous tumor of lymphatic system. Lymph cancer is caused by rapidly increased normal cells, or elongated survival relative to normal lymphocytes. Lymphoma is not contagious and mechanism of it is unknown. Most frequent finding of lymphoma is lymphadenopathy of cervical, axillar and inguinal lymph nodes.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is originated from the cells in breast tissue, and it is the most frequent cancer of females. Its most frequent subtype is “ductal” cancer originating from the mammary ducts.

Genetic factors and aging-related factors are important in breast cancer, but only 7-9% of it is hereditary.

Most frequent finding in breast cancer is painless and growing mass in the breast. Rarely, it can be painful.

Decreasing the breast cancer risk is possible. Balanced nutrition, not smoking, and limited alcohol consumption helps to decrease breast cancer risk.

Gastric Cancer

Gastric cancer is a fast advancing and spreading cancer. It can expand by contact, lymphatic and blood circulation. Gastric cancer can affect surrounding organ and lymph nodes.

Gastric cancer is most frequently seen between 50-60 years of age. Cause of this cancer is not exactly known. The symptoms in advanced stages are disturbance and pain in stomach area, weight loss, nausea and vomiting.

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is one of the most frequent cancers of women in the world, and can occur due to factors like age, lifestyle, fertility, and genetic, etc.

Generally, symptoms include persistent inguinal and abdominal pain, increased periumbilical distension, eating difficulty and early satiety, increased urination or urgency.

Pancreas Cancer

Pancreas has many important roles in digestion, and balancing blood sugar.


Pancreas cancer can progress in every part of pancreas, particularly in the head part of the organ. It is seen more in men, and after a mean age of 60 years. Jaundice is the most frequent symptom, but other findings of pancreas cancer may include weight loss, back pain, stomach pain, indigestion, distension, nausea-vomiting, diarrhea, etc.

Prostate Cancer

Prostate is a gland that only present in males, and it surrounds the urethra, the canal that carries urine from bladder to penis. Male hormones enlarge prostate. Reasons of prostate cancer are not known exactly but most important risk factor is age. It is rare under 45 years-of-age. For an early diagnosis of prostate cancer, men over 50 years-of-age can go annual screening, which may help to decrease the risk of cancer.


Signs of prostate cancer may include urination difficulties, erection problems, and blood in urine.

Cervical Cancer

Cervix is the name of cervical part of the uterus, and uterus opens to vagina here. Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. Risk of cervical cancer decreased significantly due to smear/pap-smear screening.


The HPV, which is responsible from the cervical cancer risk, infects individuals through sexual transmission. For protection from HPV, vaccination particularly before puberty is recommended.

Gallbladder Cancer

Gallbladder is a muscular organ beneath liver that contains bile, which produced in the liver. Bile is stored temporarily in this sac.

Gallbladder cancer is the 5th most frequent cancer among all gastrointestinal cancers. This cancer is seen over 55 years-of-age, particularly around 70 years, and seen more in women. Presenting symptoms may precede 3-6 months before diagnosis. Surgical pathological evaluation may be necessary for an exact diagnosis.

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancers are rare, but these malign cancers may be seen about 15-35 years-of-age. In recent years, overall survival rates have increased due to technological evolvements, advanced imaging techniques, tumor markers, surgical advancements, and multidrug chemotherapy protocols. Exact cause of testicular tumors are not known.

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid is located in front of the neck, and it is an endocrine gland beneath the Adam’s Apple. About 80-85% of thyroid gland cancers are Papillary and Follicular types, and generally benign. Cancers are generally presented by nodules in the thyroid gland.